Hydraulic components are unique in that it is often possible to offset or balance hydrostatic forces to reduce loads on lubricated surfaces.

By reducing surface loading, the maintenance of full-film (hydrodynamic) lubrication is improved and therefore boundary lubrication conditions are less likely to occur.

Hydrostatic force is the product of pressure and area. Expressed mathematically: F = P x a. The balancing or offsetting of hydrostatic force is achieved by exposing opposing areas to the same pressure.

The double-acting cylinder in Figure 1 illustrates this concept. The rod-side area of the piston, area B, is 80% of area A. This means that the force exerted on the lubricated surfaces at the end of the cylinder rod is 20% of the force developed by the pressure acting on area A. This is due to the balancing or offsetting force developed by the same pressure acting on area B. Assuming the speed of the rotating surface (C) and fluid viscosity are adequate, full-film lubrication of the sliding surfaces is achieved.

The same principle applied to a typical axial design piston is illustrated in Figure 2. Area A is exposed to system pressure during outlet (pump) or inlet (motor) and the force developed is transmitted to the lubricated surfaces of the slipper and swash plate. System pressure also acts on area B, the balancing area of the slipper, via the drilling through the center of the piston. Area C is the sliding (lubricated) area of the slipper. While the ratio of these three areas varies, in this particular piston, area B is 50% of area A, and area C is 140% of area A. This means that the force transmitted to area C is half that developed by area A and is spread over 1.4 times the area, further reducing the load on the lubricated surfaces.

If the hydrostatic balancing force is lost, that is there is no pressuring acting on area B (see Figure 3), the force exerted on the lubricated surfaces at the end of the cylinder rod will be 100% of the force developed by the pressure acting on area A. If full-film lubrication was dependent on the hydrostatic balance of the cylinder, boundary lubrication conditions will eventuate and two body abrasion is likely.

To learn more about the construction of hydraulic components, their modes of failure and how to prevent them, read **Preventing Hydraulic Failures**.

This would be a good introduction into the operation of a closed loop axial drive pump/motor system.

HI we need to get our staff to understand hydraulics better, this includes all pumps, cylinders and seal as well as fault finding on different machines and systems. Please advise on a training program that will address the above.

kind regards

Leslie,

For this I recommend our Definitive Guide to Hydraulic Troubleshooting training program.

For all the details, visit: https://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/trouble-shooting.html